Richard Voase has an interesting bunch of case studies regarding European tourism development. The case studies are well organized in three thematic areas based on political, economic and socio-cultural contexts. The bunch of stories convey changes in tourism development and practices تور سریلانکا and reflects how tourism development seeks for new ways of tourism thinking. Voase concludes that tourism experiences, on the part of travelers, show signs of active decision making with passive consumption. This point prompts the reader to trust that tourists choose “canned” experiences that are artistically constructed, however accessed through extensive information search and decision-making.
The case studies are wrote by a variety of authors with strong local ties to the place they write about which enables extraordinary insight into issues the tourism industry faces in Europe and The usa (although The usa is not the focus of this book). This book can be used in a tourism development course to help students identify current issues in tourism (e. gary the gadget guy., environmental challenges, sustainability, conservation approaches) and build upon upgrades and theoretical models in tourism.
In his introduction, Voase conveys that the analysis or presentation of the cases is based on political, economic, socio-cultural and technological environments. The analysis captures the multidimensionality of the tourism product and the cultural and social factors that relate to current ideologies, which affect how tourism evolves. Such ideologies are relating to prevalent postmodernism approaches that often affect those consumer behaviors, which capture experiential consumption rather than production processes of products or services.
The book consists of eleven chapters. The first four chapters are approached under the lenses of a political context analysis. The first chapter, by Meethan, presents the role of tourism marketing and public policy in the counties of Devon and Cornwall, He uk. Meethan concludes that for these two counties “marketing was one aspect of a greater integrated policy which aims to add in tourism more fully into the regional economy” and these programs would not have been possible without the funding from the european union (EU). “The cases of Devon and Cornwall also demonstrate how new organizational forms emerge as a respond to greater structural changes”.
Chapter 2, by Morpeth, focuses on the role of leisure and tourism as political instruments in The british isles during the 1980s. Central and local governments used leisure and recreation policies as an ext of urban policy to balance the unwanted side effects of jobless and structural problems evident in He uk in the 1980s. Morpeth discusses the case of the city of Middlesbrough and the role of Thatcherism policies on the city, which focused on the generation of inner cities and the use of tourism as a tool for regeneration.
Chapter 3, by Voase, discusses the influence of political, economic and social change in a mature tourist destination; the Area of Thanet in southeast He uk. Voase concludes that the process of policy, planning and development of tourism in a mature destination is not always straightforward. The antagonistic politics among the stakeholders involved in tourism development led to inconsistencies the development of the destination. Chapter 4, by Robledo and Batle, focuses on Mallorca as a example for replanting tourism development for a mature destination using Butler’s (1980) product life cycle concept. As a mature destination, Mallorca needs a sustainable development strategy to survive in the future. This acknowledgement led the Tourism Ministry of the Balearics Island Government to determine a tourism supply-side regulation to protect the environment. This treatment solution however, as Robledo and Bade identified, is an interesting case of struggle between different groups (i. e., government, environmental groups, councils, hoteliers, construction industry) defending their interests in tourism development. Voase identifies these first four chapters having three common factors: the role and interplay of local sections of government in the method and enactment of policy, the role of politics as a vehicle for the promotion and management of economic interests, and the powerful influence of socio-cultural factors. While these common factors are not directly evident in the presented case studies, Voase fills that hole along with documents. These common factors can stimulate further discussion as to what is the role of politics in tourism and how policy could affect researchers and practitioners in the field.
The second section of the book focuses on the economic context of tourism and its use as a regeneration and wealth creation tool. Chapter 5, by Lewis, focuses on two agri-environmental schemes, Tir Cymen and Tir Gofal, and how they affected recreational access in rural Wales. This chapter presents how these schemes caused many changes in the lawn care practices in Wales. These changes positively irritated recreation opportunities in Wale’s lawn care landscape and changed relationships between “rural and urban and new demands for rural access, all of which now reflect the interdependence of environmental health, local social and economic needs, and access to land for recreation”.
Chapter 6, by Lindroth and Soisalon-Soinimen, discusses how a historic tourist product was made in Loviisa, Finland. The goal of the tourism development was to create an image of Loviisa as a historic tourist destination and to create new products in alignment with the historic theme. Lindroth and Soisalon-Soinimen identified that without the support of the tourist office, as well as the National Board of Antiquities, development would not have progressed significantly. Also, the european union funding helped with training and expert help. The golf pros and project leaders active in the process fashioned the project through their enthusiastic actions described in detail in the case study.
Chapter 7, by Bohn and Elbe, describes the story of one man and how his vision for the municipality of Alvdalen, Sweden transformed madrid into tourist destination. The most important aspect in this story is that this man created a destination without being an expert in the field of tourism development. He used the current notion of relationship marketing to achieve successful development without knowing its full value as a marketing tool. This chapter underlines also benefit of cooperation among stakeholders involved in tourism. Voase identifies factors that these three cases share: the role of the individual entrepreneur in developing the product, the consumption of natural resources, and tourism focusing on past heritage.
The third section of the book focuses on the socio-cultural context of tourism in four case studies. Chapter 8, by Finn, discusses the change of Western european football from being a fan’s sport to being a spectator’s sport. Finn identifies current sport marketing approaches, which construct a product, or experience where fans’ identity doesn’t fit with current “civilized” consumption processes, and instead, spectators’ identity fits with those images and procedures promoted by sport marketers inside and outside football stadiums.
Chapter 9, by Baron-Yelles, focuses on tourism and the politics of nature-based tourism and how the ‘Grand Site National at La Point du Raz” undergone changes in tourism provision services and structure to accommodate tourists’ demands. In this chapter, the reader can observe trade offs between natural resources and the provision of tourism experiences. This example also shows how a destination responded to stakeholders’ opinions about coastal conservation, public access and permitted visitation levels.
Chapter 10, by Lohmann and Mundt, focuses on maturation markets for cultural tourism in Germany. The chapter discusses how tourism shapes culture through the exchange of experiences between travelers and residents in a destination. Travel and tourism are discussed as constituents of culture. Lohmann and Mundt conclude travel has become an important part of people’s lives and in turn are exposed to other cultures, which can affect their own.
Chapter 11, by East and Luger, focuses on youth culture and tourism development in the Austrian mountains. East and Luger share interesting insights on youths’ reactions and attitudinal adjustments toward tourists. They report that youth who are involved in tourism through family businesses are usually sincere of tourists. Youth in rural mountain areas were found to be interested in urban experiences.
Voase concludes these four final cases have three underlying themes. The first theme is that the consumption experience is staged or produced. This theme brings to mind MacCannell’s (1976) notion of front and back stage facts. Front stage is the presentation of a destination to visitors, whereas back stage is the real or truer nature of a destination. The second theme is that commercialization and commodification are not synonymous terms. The third theme is environments are often altered to influence people. Voase explains how sport environments have changed and caused vistors to also change.
Overall, this book is advantageous to practitioners and academics because it provides case studies offered by people with close connections to the tourism industry, thus providing an insider’s viewpoint. Voase, as both a practitioner in resort tourism marketing and an academics, effectively brings together case studies which focus on European tourism and convey concepts which shift ‘old’ tourism principles to ‘new’. His introductions of each bunch of cases (i. e., economic, political and socio-cultural) are insightful. Voase, however, does not discuss the introduction of Euro currency in Economy is shown 2002. This is an important change to the economic structure of all countries-members of the EU and their socio-cultural development. The interconnection of the EU countries through the common currency might create a feeling of a larger community, which potentially affects tourism through cultural, social, political and economic of EU member-countries.